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LWN.net is a comprehensive source of news and opinions from and about the Linux community. This is the main LWN.net feed, listing all articles which are posted to the site front page.
업데이트: 2시간 51분 지남

[$] Installing Debian on modern hardware

목, 2021/01/21 - 6:30오전
It is an unfortunate fact of life that non-free firmware blobs are required to use some hardware, such as network devices (WiFi in particular), audio peripherals, and video cards. Beyond that, those blobs may even be required in order to install a Linux distribution, so an installation over the network may need to get non-free firmware directly from the installation media. That, as might be guessed, is a bit of a problem for distributions that are not willing to officially ship said firmware because of its non-free status, as a recent discussion in the Debian community shows.
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The Debian tech committee allows Kubernetes vendoring

목, 2021/01/21 - 6:24오전
Back in October, LWN looked at a conversation within the Debian project regarding whether it was permissible to ship Kubernetes bundled with some 200 dependencies. The Debian technical committee has finally come to a conclusion on this matter: this bundling is acceptable and the maintainer will not be required to make changes:

Our consensus is that Kubernetes ought to be considered special in the same way that Firefox is considered special -- we treat the package differently from most other source packages because (i) it is very large and complex, and (ii) upstream has significantly more resources to keep all those moving parts up-to-date than Debian does.

In the end, allowing this vendoring seemed like the only feasible way to package Kubernetes for Debian.

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Banon: License changes to Elasticsearch and Kibana

목, 2021/01/21 - 4:27오전
Shay Banon first announced that Elastic would move its Apache 2.0-licensed source code in Elasticsearch and Kibana to be dual licensed under Server Side Public License (SSPL) and the Elastic License. "To be clear, our distributions starting with 7.11 will be provided only under the Elastic License, which does not have any copyleft aspects. If you are building Elasticsearch and/or Kibana from source, you may choose between SSPL and the Elastic License to govern your use of the source code."

In another post Banon added some clarification. "SSPL, a copyleft license based on GPL, aims to provide many of the freedoms of open source, though it is not an OSI approved license and is not considered open source."

There is also this article on why the change was made. "So why the change? AWS and Amazon Elasticsearch Service. They have been doing things that we think are just NOT OK since 2015 and it has only gotten worse. If we don’t stand up to them now, as a successful company and leader in the market, who will?"

The FAQ has additional information. "While we have chosen to avoid confusion by not using the term open source to refer to these products, we will continue to use the word “Open” and “Free and Open.” These are simple ways to describe the fact that the product is free to use, the source code is available, and also applies to our open and collaborative engagement model in GitHub. We remain committed to the principles of open source - transparency, collaboration, and community."

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Security updates for Wednesday

목, 2021/01/21 - 1:10오전
Security updates have been issued by Fedora (coturn, dovecot, glibc, and sudo), Mageia (openldap and resource-agents), openSUSE (dnsmasq, python-jupyter_notebook, viewvc, and vlc), Oracle (dnsmasq and xstream), SUSE (perl-Convert-ASN1, postgresql, postgresql13, and xstream), and Ubuntu (nvidia-graphics-drivers-418-server, nvidia-graphics-drivers-450-server, pillow, pyxdg, and thunderbird).
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Red Hat expands no-cost RHEL options

목, 2021/01/21 - 12:28오전
Red Hat has announced a new set of options meant to attract current CentOS users who are unhappy with the shift to CentOS Stream. "While CentOS Linux provided a no-cost Linux distribution, no-cost RHEL also exists today through the Red Hat Developer program. The program’s terms formerly limited its use to single-machine developers. We recognized this was a challenging limitation. We’re addressing this by expanding the terms of the Red Hat Developer program so that the Individual Developer subscription for RHEL can be used in production for up to 16 systems. That’s exactly what it sounds like: for small production use cases, this is no-cost, self-supported RHEL."
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Three stable kernels

수, 2021/01/20 - 5:50오전
Stable kernels 5.10.9, 5.4.91, and 4.19.169 have been released with important fixes. Users of those series should upgrade.
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[$] An introduction to SciPy

수, 2021/01/20 - 3:48오전
SciPy is a collection of Python libraries for scientific and numerical computing. Nearly every serious user of Python for scientific research uses SciPy. Since Python is popular across all fields of science, and continues to be a prominent language in some areas of research, such as data science, SciPy has a large user base. On New Year's Eve, SciPy announced version 1.6 of the scipy library, which is the central component in the SciPy stack. That release gives us a good opportunity to delve into this software and give some examples of its use.
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Security updates for Tuesday

수, 2021/01/20 - 12:41오전
Security updates have been issued by Debian (gst-plugins-bad1.0), Fedora (flatpak), Red Hat (dnsmasq, kernel, kpatch-patch, libpq, linux-firmware, postgresql:10, postgresql:9.6, and thunderbird), SUSE (dnsmasq), and Ubuntu (dnsmasq, htmldoc, log4net, and pillow).
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[$] Resource limits in user namespaces

화, 2021/01/19 - 3:25오전
User namespaces provide a number of interesting challenges for the kernel. They give a user the illusion of owning the system, but must still operate within the restrictions that apply outside of the namespace. Resource limits represent one type of restriction that, it seems, is proving too restrictive for some users. This patch set from Alexey Gladkov attempts to address the problem by way of a not-entirely-obvious approach.
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GNU Radio 3.9.0.0 released

화, 2021/01/19 - 3:24오전
Version 3.9.0.0 of the GNU Radio software-defined radio system has been released. "All in all, the main breaking change for pure GRC users will consist in a few changed blocks – an incredible feat, considering the amount of shift under the hood."
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Security updates for Monday

화, 2021/01/19 - 12:54오전
Security updates have been issued by Arch Linux (atftp, coturn, gitlab, mdbook, mediawiki, nodejs, nodejs-lts-dubnium, nodejs-lts-erbium, nodejs-lts-fermium, nvidia-utils, opensmtpd, php, python-cairosvg, python-pillow, thunderbird, vivaldi, and wavpack), CentOS (firefox and thunderbird), Debian (chromium and snapd), Fedora (chromium, flatpak, glibc, kernel, kernel-headers, nodejs, php, and python-cairosvg), Mageia (bind, caribou, chromium-browser-stable, dom4j, edk2, opensc, p11-kit, policycoreutils, python-lxml, resteasy, sudo, synergy, and unzip), openSUSE (ceph, crmsh, dovecot23, hawk2, kernel, nodejs10, open-iscsi, openldap2, php7, python-jupyter_notebook, slurm_18_08, tcmu-runner, thunderbird, tomcat, viewvc, and vlc), Oracle (dotnet3.1 and thunderbird), Red Hat (postgresql:10, postgresql:12, postgresql:9.6, and xstream), SUSE (ImageMagick, openldap2, slurm, and tcmu-runner), and Ubuntu (icoutils).
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A set of stable kernel updates

화, 2021/01/19 - 12:24오전
The 5.10.8, 5.4.90, 4.19.168, 4.14.216, 4.9.252, and 4.4.252 stable kernel updates have all been released; each contains the usual array of important fixes.
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Kernel prepatch 5.11-rc4

월, 2021/01/18 - 11:05오전
The 5.11-rc4 kernel prepatch is out for testing. "Things continue to look fairly normal for this release: 5.11-rc4 is solidly average in size, and nothing particularly scary stands out."
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Stenberg: Food on the table while giving away code

토, 2021/01/16 - 3:28오전
Daniel Stenberg writes about getting paid to work on curl — 21 years after starting the project. "I ran curl as a spare time project for decades. Over the years it became more and more common that users who submitted bug reports or asked for help about things were actually doing that during their paid work hours because they used curl in a commercial surrounding – which sometimes made the situation almost absurd. The ones who actually got paid to work with curl were asking the unpaid developers to help them out."
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Security updates for Friday

토, 2021/01/16 - 2:24오전
Security updates have been issued by Debian (flatpak, ruby-redcarpet, and wavpack), Fedora (dia, mingw-openjpeg2, and openjpeg2), Mageia (awstats, bison, cairo, kernel, kernel-linus, krb5, nvidia-current, nvidia390, php, and thunderbird), openSUSE (cobbler, firefox, kernel, libzypp, zypper, nodejs10, nodejs12, and nodejs14), Scientific Linux (thunderbird), Slackware (wavpack), SUSE (kernel, nodejs8, open-iscsi, openldap2, php7, php72, php74, slurm_20_02, and thunderbird), and Ubuntu (ampache and linux, linux-hwe, linux-hwe-5.4, linux-hwe-5.8, linux-lts-xenial).
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[$] Fast commits for ext4

토, 2021/01/16 - 1:54오전
The Linux 5.10 release included a change that is expected to significantly increase the performance of the ext4 filesystem; it goes by the name "fast commits" and introduces a new, lighter-weight journaling method. Let us look into how the feature works, who can benefit from it, and when its use may be appropriate.
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[$] MAINTAINERS truth and fiction

금, 2021/01/15 - 3:14오전
Since the release of the 5.5 kernel in January 2020, there have been almost 87,000 patches from just short of 4,600 developers merged into the mainline repository. Reviewing all of those patches would be a tall order for even the most prolific of kernel developers, so decisions on patch acceptance are delegated to a long list of subsystem maintainers, each of whom takes partial or full responsibility for a specific portion of the kernel. These maintainers are documented in a file called, surprisingly, MAINTAINERS. But the MAINTAINERS file, too, must be maintained; how well does it reflect reality?
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Wine 6.0 released

금, 2021/01/15 - 2:46오전
Version 6.0 of the Wine Windows not-an-emulator has been released. "This release is dedicated to the memory of Ken Thomases, who passed away just before Christmas at the age of 51. Ken was an incredibly brilliant developer, and the mastermind behind the macOS support in Wine. We all miss his skills, his patience, and his dark sense of humor." Significant features include core modules built as PE executables, an experimental Direct3D renderer, DirectShow support, a new text console, and more.
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Security updates for Thursday

목, 2021/01/14 - 11:17오후
Security updates have been issued by Fedora (adplug, audacious-plugins, cpu-x, kernel, kernel-headers, ocp, php, and python-lxml), openSUSE (crmsh, firefox, and hawk2), Oracle (thunderbird), Red Hat (kernel-rt), SUSE (kernel and rubygem-archive-tar-minitar), and Ubuntu (openvswitch and tar).
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[$] LWN.net Weekly Edition for January 14, 2021

목, 2021/01/14 - 10:30오전
The LWN.net Weekly Edition for January 14, 2021 is available.
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