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LWN.net is a comprehensive source of news and opinions from and about the Linux community. This is the main LWN.net feed, listing all articles which are posted to the site front page.
업데이트: 45분 26초 지남

A set of stable kernels

목, 2019/04/04 - 12:05오전
Stable kernels 5.0.6, 4.19.33, 4.14.110, 4.9.167, 4.4.178, and 3.18.138 have been released. They all contain important fixes throughout the tree and users should upgrade.
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Security updates for Wednesday

수, 2019/04/03 - 11:57오후
Security updates have been issued by Debian (apache2), Fedora (edk2 and tomcat), openSUSE (ansible, ghostscript, lftp, libgxps, libjpeg-turbo, libqt5-qtimageformats, libqt5-qtsvg, libssh2_org, openssl-1_0_0, openwsman, pdns, perl-Email-Address, putty, python-azure-agent, python-cryptography, python-pyOpenSSL, python-Flask, thunderbird, tor, unzip, and wireshark), Scientific Linux (freerdp), Slackware (wget), SUSE (bluez, file, firefox, libsndfile, netpbm, thunderbird, and xen), and Ubuntu (busybox, firebird2.5, kernel, linux, linux-aws, linux-azure, linux-gcp, linux-kvm, linux-raspi2, linux, linux-aws, linux-kvm, linux-raspi2, linux-snapdragon, linux-hwe, linux-aws-hwe, linux-azure, linux-gcp, linux-oracle, linux-hwe, linux-azure, linux-lts-trusty, linux-lts-xenial, linux-aws, linux-raspi2, and policykit-1).
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[$] Program names and "pollution"

수, 2019/04/03 - 3:54오전

A Linux user's $PATH likely contains well over a thousand different commands that were installed by various packages. It's not immediately obvious which package is responsible for a command with a generic name, like createuser. There are ways to figure it out, of course, but perhaps it would make sense for packages like PostgreSQL, which is responsible for createuser, to give their commands names that are less generic—and more easily disambiguated—such as pg_createuser. But renaming commands down the road has "backward compatibility problems" written all over it, as a recent discussion on the pgsql-hackers mailing list shows.

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The Debian Project mourns the loss of Innocent de Marchi

수, 2019/04/03 - 1:29오전
The Debian Project sadly announced the passing of Innocent de Marchi. "Innocent was a math teacher and a free software developer. One of his passions was tangram puzzles, which led him to write a tangram-like game that he later packaged and maintained in Debian. Soon his contributions expanded to other areas, and he also worked as a tireless translator into Catalan."
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VMware Suit Concludes in Germany

수, 2019/04/03 - 1:12오전
Software Freedom Conservancy reports that the Hamburg Higher Regional Court affirmed the lower court's decision, which dismissed Christoph Hellwig's case against VMWare in Germany. Hellwig will not pursue the case further in German courts.

Conservancy's staff also spent a significant amount of time and resources at each stage of the proceedings — most recently, analyzing what this ruling could mean for future enforcement actions. The German court made a final decision in this case on procedure and standing, not on substance. While we are disappointed that the courts did not take the opportunity to deliver a clear pro-software-freedom ruling, this ruling does not set precedent and the implications of the decision are limited. This matter certainly would proceed differently with different presentation of plaintiffs or in another jurisdiction.

In addition to VMware committing to removing vmklinux from their kernel, this case also succeeded in sparking significant discussion about the community-wide implications for free software when some companies playing by the rules while others continually break them. Our collective insistence, that licensing terms are not optional, has now spurred other companies to take copyleft compliance more seriously. The increased focus on respecting licenses post-lawsuit and providing source code for derivative works — when coupled with VMware's reluctant but eventual compliance — is a victory, even if we must now look to other jurisdictions and other last-resort legal actions to adjudicate the question of the GPL and derivative works of Linux.

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Security updates for Tuesday

수, 2019/04/03 - 12:11오전
Security updates have been issued by CentOS (firefox, libssh2, and thunderbird), Debian (firmware-nonfree, kernel, and libssh2), Fedora (drupal7, flatpak, and mod_auth_mellon), Gentoo (burp, cairo, glusterfs, libical, poppler, subversion, thunderbird, and unbound), openSUSE (yast2-rmt), Red Hat (freerdp), and SUSE (bash, ed, libarchive, ntp, and sqlite3).
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Chef becomes 100% free software

화, 2019/04/02 - 11:10오후
Chef, the purveyor of a popular configuration-management system, has announced a move away from the open-core business model and the open-sourcing of all of its software. "We aren’t making this change lightly. Over the years we have experimented with and learned from a variety of different open source, community and commercial models, in search of the right balance. We believe that this change, and the way we have made it, best aligns the objectives of our communities with our own business objectives. Now we can focus all of our investment and energy on building the best possible products in the best possible way for our community without having to choose between what is 'proprietary' and what is 'in the commons.'"
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[$] Some slow progress on get_user_pages()

화, 2019/04/02 - 9:40오전
One of the surest signs that the Linux Storage, Filesystem, and Memory-Management (LSFMM) Summit is approaching is the seasonal migration of memory-management developers toward the get_user_pages() problem. This core kernel primitive is necessary for high-performance I/O to user-space memory, but its interactions with filesystems have never been reliable — or even fully specified. There are currently a couple of patch sets in circulation that are attempting to improve the situation, though a full solution still seems distant.
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Bottomley: A Roadmap for Eliminating Patents in Open Source

화, 2019/04/02 - 1:52오전
James Bottomley has posted a detailed description of how patent exhaustion might be used to mostly eliminate the software patent threat to free software. "The intriguing possibility this offers us is that we may be close to an enforceable court decision (at least in the US) that would render all patents in open source owned by community members exhausted and thus unenforceable. The purpose of this blog post is to explain the current landscape and how we might be able to get the necessary missing court decisions to make this hope a reality."
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Security updates for Monday

화, 2019/04/02 - 12:46오전
Security updates have been issued by Debian (chromium, drupal7, gpsd, libav, libdatetime-timezone-perl, php5, rails, thunderbird, twig, tzdata, and wordpress), Fedora (edk2, flatpak, fuse, ghostscript, gnutls, golang-googlecode-go-crypto, grub2, mxml, poppler, and systemd), Mageia (file, kernel, live, mplayer, vlc, openjpeg2, pdns, and poppler), openSUSE (containerd, docker, docker-runc, golang-github-docker-libnetwork, runc, kernel, ovmf, and ucode-intel), SUSE (adcli, sssd, GraphicsMagick, kernel, liblouis, libssh2_org, nodejs6, openssl, ovmf, SDL, sysstat, tiff, various KMPs, and xen), and Ubuntu (dovecot and gpac).
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Linux Journal at 25

월, 2019/04/01 - 11:16오후
Linux Journal celebrates 25 years since it began publishing. "Most magazines have the life expectancy of a house plant. Such was the betting line for Linux Journal when it started in April 1994. Our budget was a shoestring. The closest our owner, SSC (Specialized System Consultants) came to the magazine business was with the reference cards it published for UNIX, C, VI, Java, Bash and so on."
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Kernel prepatch 5.1-rc3

월, 2019/04/01 - 10:48오후
The 5.1-rc3 kernel prepatch is out for testing. Linus says: "Nothing particularly unusual going on here".
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Courtès: Connecting reproducible deployment to a long-term source code archive

토, 2019/03/30 - 7:45오전
On the Guix blog, Ludovic Courtès writes about connecting reproducible builds for the Guix package manager with the Software Heritage archive. "It quickly became clear that reproducible builds had 'reproducible source code downloads', so to speak, as a prerequisite. The Software Heritage archive is the missing piece that would finally allow us to reproduce software environments years later in spite of the volatility of code hosting sites. Software Heritage’s mission is to archive essentially 'all' the source code ever published, including version control history. Its archive already periodically ingests release tarballs from the GNU servers, repositories from GitHub, packages from PyPI, and much more. We quickly settled on a scheme where Guix would fall back to the Software Heritage archive whenever it fails to download source code from its original location. That way, package definitions don’t need to be modified: they still refer to the original source code URL, but the downloading machinery transparently goes to Software Heritage when needed."
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[$] Improving the performance of the BFQ I/O scheduler

토, 2019/03/30 - 1:49오전
BFQ is a proportional-share I/O scheduler available for block devices since the 4.12 kernel release. It associates each process or group of processes with a weight, and grants a fraction of the available I/O bandwidth proportional to that weight. BFQ also tries to maximize system responsiveness and to minimize latency for time-sensitive applications. Finally, BFQ aims at boosting throughput and at running efficiently. A new set of changes has improved BFQ’s performance with respect to all of these criteria. In particular, they increase the throughput that BFQ reaches while handling the most challenging workloads for this I/O scheduler. A notable example is DBENCH workloads, for which BFQ now provides 150% more throughput. These changes also improve BFQ’s I/O control — applications start about 80% more quickly under load — and BFQ itself now runs about 10% faster.
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Linux Foundation Welcomes LVFS Project (Linux.com)

토, 2019/03/30 - 1:36오전
Linux.com interviews Richard Hughes about the Linux Vendor Firmware Service (LVFS), which has recently joined the Linux Foundation as a new project. Hughes is the founder and maintainer of the project. "The short-term goal was to get 95% of updatable consumer hardware supported. With the recent addition of HP that's now a realistic target, although you have to qualify the 95% with 'new consumer non-enterprise hardware sold this year' as quite a few vendors will only support hardware no older than a few years at most, and most still charge for firmware updates for enterprise hardware. My long-term goal is for the LVFS to be seen like a boring, critical part of infrastructure in Linux, much like you’d consider an NTP server for accurate time, or a PGP keyserver for trust. With the recent Spectre and Meltdown issues hitting the industry, firmware updates are no longer seen as something that just adds support for new hardware or fixes the occasional hardware issue. Now the EFI BIOS is a fully fledged operating system with networking capabilities, companies and government agencies are realizing that firmware updates are as important as kernel updates, and many are now writing in 'must support LVFS' as part of any purchasing policy."
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Security updates for Friday

금, 2019/03/29 - 11:58오후
Security updates have been issued by Arch Linux (dovecot and imagemagick), Debian (dovecot, libraw, pdns, and ruby2.1), Fedora (mingw-podofo, openwsman, podofo, qemu, and svgsalamander), openSUSE (chromium, ffmpeg-4, firefox, libssh2_org, nodejs4, and qemu), Red Hat (libssh2), Scientific Linux (libssh2 and thunderbird), SUSE (kernel, liblouis, ntp, openssl-1_1, and tiff), and Ubuntu (firefox, freeimage, libapache2-mod-auth-mellon, and thunderbird).
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[$] Working with UTF-8 in the kernel

금, 2019/03/29 - 2:34오전
In the real world, text is expressed in many languages using a wide variety of character sets; those character sets can be encoded in a lot of different ways. In the kernel, life has always been simpler; file names and other string data are just opaque streams of bytes. In the few cases where the kernel must interpret text, nothing more than ASCII is required. The proposed addition of case-insensitive file-name lookups to the ext4 filesystem changes things, though; now some kernel code must deal with the full complexity of Unicode. A look at the API being provided to handle encodings illustrates nicely just how complicated this task is.
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Security updates for Thursday

금, 2019/03/29 - 12:04오전
Security updates have been issued by Debian (kernel and wpa), Fedora (firefox and pdns), Gentoo (apache, cabextract, chromium, gd, nasm, sdl2-image, and zeromq), openSUSE (GraphicsMagick and lftp), Red Hat (thunderbird), Scientific Linux (firefox), Slackware (gnutls), and SUSE (ImageMagick).
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[$] LWN.net Weekly Edition for March 28, 2019

목, 2019/03/28 - 9:28오전
The LWN.net Weekly Edition for March 28, 2019 is available.
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[$] The Debian project leader election

목, 2019/03/28 - 7:48오전

While a few weeks back it looked like there might be a complete lack of Debian project leader (DPL) candidates, that situation has changed. After a one-week delay, five Debian developers have nominated themselves. We are now about halfway through the campaign phase; platforms have been posted and questions have been asked and answered. It seems a good time to have a look at the candidates and their positions.

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