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LWN.net is a comprehensive source of news and opinions from and about the Linux community. This is the main LWN.net feed, listing all articles which are posted to the site front page.
업데이트: 57분 12초 지남

Ubuntu 22.04 LTS (Jammy Jellyfish) released

금, 2022/04/22 - 6:12오전
The Ubuntu 22.04 LTS release, codenamed "Jammy Jellyfish", is now available. It comes in several editions (Desktop, Server, Cloud, and Core) and multiple flavors (Ubuntu Budgie, Kubuntu, Lubuntu, Ubuntu Kylin, Ubuntu MATE, UbuntuStudio, and Xubuntu). Lots more information can be found in the release notes. Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS gains significant usability, battery and performance improvements with GNOME 42. It features GNOME power profiles and streamlined workspace transitions alongside significant optimisations which can double the desktop frame rate on Intel and Raspberry Pi graphics drivers.

Ubuntu 22.04 LTS is the first LTS release where the entire recent Raspberry Pi device portfolio is supported, from the new Raspberry Pi Zero 2W to the Raspberry Pi 4. Ubuntu 22.04 LTS adds Rust for memory-safe systems-level programming. It also moves to OpenSSL v3, with new cryptographic algorithms for elevated security.

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Debian Project Leader Election 2022 Results

금, 2022/04/22 - 1:10오전
The Debian project leader election has completed and Jonathan Carter has been reelected for his third term. For more information, see the Debian vote page. We looked at the candidates back in March.
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[$] An introduction to Linux audio plugin APIs

금, 2022/04/22 - 12:03오전
The world of music and audio production is largely dominated by proprietary software vendors. Among them, Steinberg stands out as a company that created some of the most-used software, including the Cubase and Nuendo digital audio workstations. Steinberg is also known as the creator of the VST plugin API that, largely due to its licensing policy, has irritated developers enough to inspire multiple attempts at creating an open-source alternative. Even now, when the VST3 SDK is available under the GPLv3 license, the way the company exercises its control over the SDK keeps pushing developers away toward other open-source solutions.

This is an introduction to open-source plugin APIs for musicians and sound engineers alike. It focuses on the options in the larger ecosystem and how their shortcomings led to the creation of new alternatives with liberal licensing.

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Security updates for Thursday

목, 2022/04/21 - 11:09오후
Security updates have been issued by Fedora (frr, grafana, gzip, and pdns), Oracle (java-11-openjdk), Red Hat (java-11-openjdk and kernel), Scientific Linux (java-11-openjdk), SUSE (dcraw, GraphicsMagick, gzip, kernel, nbd, netty, qemu, SDL, and xen), and Ubuntu (libinput, linux, linux-aws, linux-aws-5.13, linux-azure, linux-azure-5.13, linux-gcp, linux-gcp-5.13, linux-hwe-5.13, linux-kvm, linux-oracle, linux-oracle-5.13, linux-raspi, linux, linux-aws, linux-aws-hwe, linux-azure, linux-azure-4.15, linux-dell300x, linux-gcp, inux-gcp-4.15, linux-hwe, linux-kvm, linux-oracle, linux-snapdragon, linux, linux-aws, linux-azure, linux-azure-5.4, linux-azure-fde, linux-gcp, linux-gcp-5.4, linux-gke, linux-gke-5.4, linux-gkeop, linux-gkeop-5.4, linux-hwe-5.4, linux-ibm, linux-ibm-5.4, linux-kvm, linux-oracle, linux-oracle-5.4, linux-raspi, linux-raspi-5.4, and linux-oem-5.14).
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Two OpenWrt updates

목, 2022/04/21 - 9:18오후
The OpenWrt 21.02.3 and 19.07.10 updates have been released. These updates contain some security fixes and improved device support. It's noting that this is the last 19.07 update:

OpenWrt 19.07.10 is the final release of the 19.07 release branch, this branch is now end of life and we will not fix problems on this branch any more, not even severe security problems. We encourage all users still using OpenWrt 19.07 to upgrade to OpenWrt 21.02 or more recent OpenWrt versions.

Router distributions are easy to forget about; now might be a good time to check any relevant systems and, if needed, doing an upgrade.

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[$] LWN.net Weekly Edition for April 21, 2022

목, 2022/04/21 - 9:30오전
The LWN.net Weekly Edition for April 21, 2022 is available.
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[$] Fedora considers deprecating legacy BIOS

목, 2022/04/21 - 6:35오전
A proposal to "deprecate" support for BIOS-only systems for Fedora, by no longer supporting new installations on those systems, led to a predictably long discussion on the Fedora devel mailing list. There are, it seems, quite a few users who still have BIOS-based systems; many do not want to have to switch away from Fedora simply to keep their systems up to date. But, sometime in the future, getting rid of BIOS support seems inevitable since the burden on those maintaining the tools for installing and booting those systems is non-trivial and likely to grow over time. To head that off, a special interest group (SIG) may form to help keep BIOS support alive until it really is no longer needed.
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Tromey: Faster GDB Startup

목, 2022/04/21 - 4:38오전
On his blog, Tom Tromey writes about speeding up the startup of the GDB debugger. He sees 7x improvements in startup time (e.g. 2.2 to 0.3 seconds) for C++ code. GDB, essentially, had two DWARF readers. They actually shared a surprisingly small amount of code (which was an occasional source of bugs). For example, while abbrev lookup and name generation (more on that later) was shared, the actual DIE [debugging information entry] data structures were not.

The first DWARF reader created “partial symbols”, which held a name and some associated, easy-to-compute data, like the kind of symbol (variable, function, struct tag, etc). The second DWARF reader (which is still there now) is called when more information was needed about a particular symbol — say, its type. This reader reads all the DIEs in a DWARF compilation unit and expands them into gdb’s symbol table, block, and type data structures.

Both of these scans were slow, but for the time being I’ve only rewritten the first scan, as it was the one that was first encountered and most obviously painful. (I’ve got a plan to fix up the CU expansion as well, but that’s a lengthy project of its own.)

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Security updates for Wednesday

수, 2022/04/20 - 6:51오후
Security updates have been issued by Debian (condor), Red Hat (389-ds:1.4, container-tools:2.0, kernel, kernel-rt, and kpatch-patch), SUSE (chrony, containerd, expat, git, icedtea-web, jsoup, jsr-305, kernel, libeconf, shadow and util-linux, protobuf, python-libxml2-python, python3, slirp4netns, sssd, vim, and wpa_supplicant), and Ubuntu (bash).
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A pile of stable kernel updates

수, 2022/04/20 - 4:53오후
The 5.17.4, 5.15.35, 5.10.112, 5.4.190, 4.19.239, 4.14.276, and 4.9.311 stable kernel updates have all been released; each contains another relatively large set of important fixes.
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The More You Know, The More You Know You Don’t Know (Project Zero)

수, 2022/04/20 - 3:19오후
The Google Project Zero blog is carrying a report on zero-day vulnerabilities found to be exploited during 2021.

5 of the 7 [Android] 0-days from 2021 targeted GPU drivers. This is actually not that surprising when we consider the evolution of the Android ecosystem as well as recent public security research into Android. The Android ecosystem is quite fragmented: many different kernel versions, different manufacturer customizations, etc. If an attacker wants a capability against "Android devices", they generally need to maintain many different exploits to have a decent percentage of the Android ecosystem covered. However, if the attacker chooses to target the GPU kernel driver instead of another component, they will only need to have two exploits since most Android devices use 1 of 2 GPUs: either the Qualcomm Adreno GPU or the ARM Mali GPU.

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[$] Super Python (part 1)

수, 2022/04/20 - 12:01오전
A mega-thread in the python-ideas mailing list is hardly surprising, of course; we have covered quite a few of them over the years. A recent example helps shine a light into a dark—or at least dim—corner of the Python language: the super() built-in function for use by methods in class hierarchies. There are some, perhaps surprising, aspects to super() along with wrinkles in how to properly use it. But it has been part of the language for a long time, so changes to its behavior, as was suggested in the thread, are pretty unlikely.
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Mourning Pedro Francisco

화, 2022/04/19 - 11:51오후
Luis Falcon brings the sad news that Pedro Francisco has passed on. "Pedro created and managed MasGNULinux, a Spanish blog with news about Free Software and GNU/Linux. MasGNULinux was the best reference in the latest Free Software projects for the Spanish speaking community."
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Security updates for Tuesday

화, 2022/04/19 - 7:46오후
Security updates have been issued by Debian (gzip and xz-utils), Fedora (dhcp and rsync), Mageia (chromium-browser-stable), openSUSE (chromium), SUSE (gzip, openjpeg2, and zabbix), and Ubuntu (klibc).
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McIntyre: Firmware - what are we going to do about it?

화, 2022/04/19 - 3:48오후
Steve McIntyre argues that Debian needs to rethink its approach to non-free firmware.

Today, a user with a new laptop from most vendors will struggle to use it at all with our firmware-free Debian installation media. Modern laptops normally don't come with wired ethernet now. There won't be any usable graphics on the laptop's screen. A visually-impaired user won't get any audio prompts. These experiences are not acceptable, by any measure.

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10 years of stories behind Guix (Guix blog)

화, 2022/04/19 - 7:41오전
Over on the blog for the GNU Guix project, which is a "transactional package manager and an advanced distribution of the GNU system that respects user freedom", the project reflects on its ten-year journey. The post consists of personal accounts from around two dozen contributors about the project, its history, and its community. It’s been ten years today since the very first commit to what was already called Guix—the unimaginative name is a homage to Guile and Nix, which Guix started by blending together. On April 18th, 2012, there was very little to see and no actual "project". The project formed in the following months and became a collective adventure around a shared vision.

Ten years later, it’s amazing to see what more than 600 people achieved, with 94K commits, countless hours of translation, system administration, web design work, and no less than 175 blog posts to share our enthusiasm at each major milestone. It’s been quite a ride!

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Git 2.36.0 released

화, 2022/04/19 - 2:48오전
Version 2.36.0 of the Git source-code management system is out. As usual, the list of new features is long; this GitHub blog post covers some of the highlights:

But this [merge conflict] output can be understandably difficult to interpret. In Git 2.36, --remerge-diff takes a different approach. Instead of showing you the diffs between the merge resolution and each parent simultaneously, --remerge-diff shows you the diff between the file with merge conflicts, and the resolution.

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[$] User events — but not quite yet

화, 2022/04/19 - 2:25오전
The ftrace and perf subsystems provide visibility into the workings of the kernel; by activating existing tracepoints, interested developers can see what is happening at specific points in the code. As much as kernel developers may resist the notion, though, not all events of interest on a system happen within the kernel. Administrators will often want to look inside user-space processes as well; they would be even happier with a mechanism that allows the simultaneous tracing of events in both the kernel and user space. The user-events subsystem, developed by Beau Belgrave and added during the 5.18 merge window, promises that capability, but users will almost certainly have to wait another cycle to gain access to it.
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Security updates for Monday

월, 2022/04/18 - 10:09오후
Security updates have been issued by Debian (abcm2ps and chromium), Fedora (cacti, cacti-spine, and fribidi), and Mageia (crun, docker-containerd, libarchive, mediawiki, and ruby).
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Kernel prepatch 5.18-rc3

월, 2022/04/18 - 3:33오후
The 5.18-rc3 kernel prepatch is out for testing. "It's Sunday afternoon, and you all know what that means. It's time for another release candidate. (Yes, yes, it's also Easter Sunday, but priorities, people!)"
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