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LWN.net is a comprehensive source of news and opinions from and about the Linux community. This is the main LWN.net feed, listing all articles which are posted to the site front page.
업데이트: 2분 1초 지남

The 6.1 kernel is out

월, 2022/12/12 - 9:28오전
Linus has released the 6.1 kernel; he is preparing for a tricky holiday merge window: So here we are, a week late, but last week was nice and slow, and I'm much happier about the state of 6.1 than I was a couple of weeks ago when things didn't seem to be slowing down.

Of course, that means that now we have the merge window from hell, just before the holidays, with me having some pre-holiday travel coming up too. So while delaying things for a week was the right thing to do, it does make the timing for the 6.2 merge window awkward.

Headline features in 6.1 include reworked, LLVM-based control-flow integrity, initial support for kernel development in Rust, support for destructive BPF programs, some significant io_uring performance improvements, better user-space control over transparent huge-page creation, improved memory-tiering support, fundamental memory-management rewrites in the form of the multi-generational LRU and the maple tree data structure, the kernel memory sanitizer, and much more. See the LWN merge-window summaries (part 1, part 2) and the KernelNewbies 6.1 page for more information.


[$] mimmutable() for OpenBSD

토, 2022/12/10 - 12:16오전
Virtual-memory systems provide a great deal of flexibility in how memory can be mapped and protected. Unfortunately, memory-management flexibility can also be useful to attackers bent on compromising a system. In the OpenBSD world, a new system call is being added to reduce this flexibility; it is, though, a system call that almost no code is expected to use.

Security updates for Friday

금, 2022/12/09 - 10:29오후
Security updates have been issued by Debian (leptonlib), Fedora (woff), Red Hat (grub2), Slackware (emacs), SUSE (busybox, chromium, java-1_8_0-openjdk, netatalk, and rabbitmq-server), and Ubuntu (gcc-5, gccgo-6, glibc, protobuf, and python2.7, python3.10, python3.6, python3.8).

PHP 8.2.0 released

금, 2022/12/09 - 2:29오전
Version 8.2.0 of the PHP language is out.

PHP 8.2 is a major update of the PHP language.It contains many new features, including readonly classes, null, false, and true as stand-alone types, deprecated dynamic properties, performance improvements and more.


[$] Bugs and fixes in the kernel history

금, 2022/12/09 - 2:02오전
Each new kernel release fixes a lot of bugs, but each release also introduces new bugs of its own. That leads to a fundamental question: is the kernel community fixing bugs more quickly than it is adding them? The answer is less than obvious but, if it could be found, it would give an important indication of the long-term future of the kernel code base. While digging into the kernel's revision history cannot give a definitive answer to that question, it can provide some hints as to what that answer might be.

Seven new stable kernels

목, 2022/12/08 - 10:35오후
Greg Kroah-Hartman has released the 6.0.12, 5.15.82, 5.10.158, 5.4.226, 4.19.268, 4.14.301, and 4.9.335 stable kernels. As is the norm, they contain important fixes throughout the kernel tree; users of those series should upgrade.

Security updates for Thursday

목, 2022/12/08 - 10:22오후
Security updates have been issued by Debian (dlt-daemon, jqueryui, and virglrenderer), Fedora (firefox, vim, and woff), Oracle (kernel and nodejs:18), Red Hat (java-1.8.0-ibm and redhat-ds:11), Slackware (python3), SUSE (buildah, matio, and osc), and Ubuntu (heimdal and postgresql-9.5).

[$] LWN.net Weekly Edition for December 8, 2022

목, 2022/12/08 - 9:12오전
The LWN.net Weekly Edition for December 8, 2022 is available.

Tor Browser 12.0 released

목, 2022/12/08 - 5:06오전
Version 12.0 of the Tor browser has been released. Changes include multi-locale support, Apple silicon support, HTTPS-only behavior by default on Android and more.

[$] Composefs for integrity protection and data sharing

목, 2022/12/08 - 2:02오전
A read-only filesystem that will transparently share file data between disparate directory trees, while also providing integrity verification for the data and the directory metadata, was recently posted as an RFC to the linux-kernel mailing list. Composefs was developed by Alexander Larsson (who posted it) and Giuseppe Scrivano for use by podman containers and OSTree (or "libostree" as it is now known) root directories, but there are likely others who want the abilities it provides. So far, there has been little response, either with feedback or complaints, but it is a small patch set (around 2K lines of code) and generally self-contained since it is a filesystem, so it would not be a surprise to see it appear in some upcoming kernel.

Security updates for Wednesday

수, 2022/12/07 - 6:03오후
Security updates have been issued by Debian (cgal, ruby-rails-html-sanitizer, and xfce4-settings), Red Hat (dbus, grub2, kernel, pki-core, and usbguard), Scientific Linux (pki-core), SUSE (bcel, LibVNCServer, and xen), and Ubuntu (ca-certificates and u-boot).

Rust support coming to GCC

수, 2022/12/07 - 5:44오후
Gccrs — the Rust front-end for GCC — has been approved for merging into the GCC trunk. That means that the next GCC release will be able to compile Rust, sort of; as gccrs developer Arthur Cohen warns: "This is very much an extremely experimental compiler and will still get a lot of changes in the coming weeks and months up until the release". See this article and this one for more details on the current status of gccrs.

KernelCI now testing Linux Rust code (Collabora blog)

수, 2022/12/07 - 6:29오전
Over on the Collabora blog, Adrian Ratiu writes about the addition of the kernel's Rust code to the KernelCI automated kernel testing project. The blog post looks at what it took to add the support and on some plans for future additions, as well. An interesting challenge for the rustc docker builds was the fact that the standard Rust method of installing toolchains is via curl https://sh.rustup.rs | sh which might be ok-ish for individual local development, but is a particularly bad idea in an automated CI system. Rustup itself does not (yet) do any signature verifications for its downloads.

Distros like Debian do not ship the version required by the kernel (v1.62), nor even rustup in some cases, and it's unlikely the distro maintainers will keep the versions in sync with the mainline kernel which likely will become a moving target. Thankfully the Rust project provides standalone installers together with GPG signatures which are very useful for CI.


[$] Checking page-cache status with cachestat()

수, 2022/12/07 - 12:35오전
The kernel's page cache holds pages from files in RAM, allowing those pages to be accessed without expensive trips to persistent storage. Applications are normally entirely unaware of the page cache's operation; it speeds things up and that is all that matters. Some applications, though, can benefit from knowledge about how much of a given file is present in the page cache at any given time; the proposed cachestat() system call from Nhat Pham is the latest in a long series of attempts to make that information available.

Security updates for Tuesday

화, 2022/12/06 - 7:02오후
Security updates have been issued by Ubuntu (binutils and ca-certificates).

A 10-minute guide to the Linux ABI (opensource.com)

화, 2022/12/06 - 5:57오후
Alison Chaiken provides an overview of Linux ABI concerns on opensource.com.

Understanding the stable ABI is a bit subtle. Consider that, while most of sysfs is stable ABI, the debug interfaces are guaranteed to be unstable since they expose kernel internals to userspace. In general, Linus Torvalds has pronounced that by "don't break userspace," he means to protect ordinary users who "just want it to work" rather than system programmers and kernel engineers, who should be able to read the kernel documentation and source code to figure out what has changed between releases.


[$] Losing the magic

화, 2022/12/06 - 12:07오전
The kernel project is now more than three decades old; over that time, a number of development practices have come and gone. Once upon a time, the use of "magic numbers" to identify kernel data structures was seen as a good way to help detect and debug problems. Over the years, though, the use of magic numbers has gone into decline; this patch set from Ahelenia Ziemiańska may be an indication that the reign of magic numbers may be reaching its end.

Security updates for Monday

월, 2022/12/05 - 11:11오후
Security updates have been issued by Debian (awstats, chromium, clamav, g810-led, giflib, http-parser, jhead, libpgjava, node-cached-path-relative, node-fetch, and vlc), Fedora (fastnetmon, kernel, librime, qpress, rr, thunderbird, and wireshark), Red Hat (kernel, kernel-rt, and kpatch-patch), Slackware (mozilla), SUSE (cherrytree and chromium), and Ubuntu (libbpf, libxml2, linux-gcp-5.15, linux-gke, linux-gke-5.15, and linux-gke).

Kernel prepatch 6.1-rc8

월, 2022/12/05 - 5:04오후
The eighth and presumably final 6.1 kernel prepatch has been released for testing. "So everything looks good, and while the calming down may have happened later than I wished for, it did happen. Let's hope this upcoming week is as quiet (or quieter)."